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Pomeranian History

The Pomeranian is considered to have evolved from wolf-spitz type dogs. These early spitz breed dogs can be traced migrating to parts of Germany from Northern Russia and Siberia. Sharing the same ancestors with many other nordic breeds such as the Samoyed, Schipperke and Keeshond. These early spitz dogs were used as guard and sled animals, however the smallest were often kept as companions.

At this stage the Pomeranian probably weighed around 30 lbs. In many parts of Europe this breed of dog developed and was known by different names. In Italy the Volpino, France the Lulu, Belgium the Keeshond, Germany the German Spitz. A variety of the Pomeranian or Spitz was known for many years in Italy. The type of Spitz dog or Pomeranian peculiar to Italy was of a bright Yellow or Orange color.

early pomeranian dogPictured left the Pomeranian Dog in 1885.

During the 18th century , the Pomeranian or Wolf Dog, as the Breed was then known, was established in England after drawing the interest of the English monarchy. In 1761 marrying King George 111, Queen Charlotte brought her pet dogs to England. Queen Charlotte’s dogs were what was then called “wolf dog” in type and mainly white in colour The Pomeranian is named after the territory in Germany from which Queen Charlotte, imported many Pomeranians; Pomerania . Queen Charlotte at the time referred to the breed as the Pommeranian. However it was not until Queen Charlotte’s granddaughter, Queen Victoria’s reign that the Pomeranian became one of the most popular toy breeds. The royal Pomeranians travelled with Queen Victoria, even on overseas trips. A special compartment was built to house the royal dogs on the royal train. Queen Victoria’s dogs had their own Policeman to ensure their safety and security. Queen Victoria requested her favourite Pomeranian “Marco” for company as she lay on her deathbed.Queen_Victoria_with_her_beloved_Turi

Pictured right a photo of Queen Victoria’s and her Pomeranian Turi.

Breeders had been working to improve and miniaturize the Breed and the 9 to 13.6 kg. dogs of Queen Charlotte’s time now weighed

The founders of the English Kennel Club held their first show in 1870, and in that year only three Pomeranians were exhibited Queen Victoria further improved and promoted the Pomeranian breed by importing smaller dogs of different colors from various European countries.

We know by accessing many old and very rare dog books that the rainbow of colors available in the breed now, did not exist during the early development of the breed. References to the Pomeranian Colors from the “Sportmans Cabinet” which was published in 1804 refers to the Pomeranian or Wolf- dog and describes the colors of the breed at that time. “this breed is termed the Pomeranian or Wolf-dog, and the colour is referred to as being “mostly of a pale yellow or cream colour, and lightest in the lower parts; some are white, some few black, and others, but very rarely, spotted.”

Over the years many famous people have fallen under the spell of this delightful little dog. Michangelo’s Pomeranian is said to have watched Michangelo paint the Sistern Chapel. Marie Antoinette and Mozart also owned a Pomeranian Dog. Elvis Presley was the proud owner of a Pomeranian dog. Recently we have seen many famous people owing a Pomeranian dog. Fran Drescher’s Pomeranian “Chester” made an appearance in the television show “The Nanny”. Fran Drescher now has another Pomeranian to love, Esther Drescher. Sharon Osbourne’ recently lost her beloved Pomeranian called Minnie and of late we have all seen Nicole Richie’s Pomeranian, Foxxy Cleopatra gracing the tabloids. Sean Combs (P. Diddy) and Kim Porter own and love Pomeranians. Paris Hilton’s Pomeranians often make headlines in the tabloids.

modern show quality PomeranianPictured left a typical, modern show quality Pomeranian

General Appearance

The Pomeranian is a small ,compact ,dainty dog . He displays great glamour with his crowning glory- a dense ,double coat ,made up of long, harsh,standoff guard hairs and a soft woolly undercoat. His tail is carried straight over his back, not curled, but should lie flat.The tail that lies flat on the back is a characteristic of the Pomeranian breed that sets this spitz dog apart from the other spitz breeds. The tail has a profuse plume reaching to the back of the head. This plume of long glistening hair helps to give the illusion of a circle. The head with a short fine muzzle, medium sized almond shaped eyes, the tiniest of pricked ears and an intelligent sweet expression add to the breed’s appeal. The Pomeranian Breed Standard makes mention of a “fox like expression”. This mention of “fox like expression ” has caused confusion, with some not realizing this is a reference to expression only. The Pomeranian has a short coupled solid body , fine boned, short neck, neat and compact cat-like feet. The Pomeranian should move soundly with grace and style.

Pomeranian Colors and Patterns

The Pomeranian comes in a rainbow of colors. Pomeranian colors include Orange, Orange Sable, Cream, Cream Sable, Black, Wolf Sable, Chocolate, Beaver, White, Lavender and Blue. Patterns are Brindles, Merle, Black & Tan and Parti color. Size : Dogs 1.8. kg to 2 kg. Bitches 2kg. to 2.5. kg. The Pomeranian height is approx.8 inches (20 cm). The Pomeranian breed standard deviates from most other breeds by requiring the female to be slightly larger than the male. The Pomeranian Dog only has one size standard . There are no miniature, toy standard or teacup Pomeranians. A reputable, registered breeder does not describe their puppy’s by these terms. Beware of any “breeder” advertising Pomeranians puppies by any of these terms. You can be sure that anyone who tells you they have teacup Pomeranians, miniature Pomeranians, or toy Pomeranians for sale is not a reputable Breeder. My advice is to always purchase from a reputable breeder, so I would look for your new family member elsewhere.  

Average Life Span

The average Pomeranian lifespan is about 12 years, but it is not unusual for some Pomeranians to live a happy life well into their middle teens Keeping your Pomeranian trim and active will help prevent many health problems and enable your Pomeranian to lead a happy life into the mid teens. Desexing your pet Pomeranian reduces the risk of many cancers.  


The Pomeranian is a delightful family member, loyal, extrovert, lively and very, very intelligent. Owing to the diminutive size and high energy level, the Pomeranian is not recommended for families with young children. Families with young children should consider purchasing an older Pomeranian Puppy. A Pomeranian aged between 6 to 12 months is ideal for families with young children. Pomeranians are suitable for flat dwellers who are prepared to exercise their dog on a regular basis and also make loyal , loving and very intelligent companions for the elderly. For complete and detailed Pomeranian information, how to choose the right Pomeranian puppy for your family, Feeding your new Pomeranian puppy, toilet and crate traing your Pomeranian, Socializing your Pomeranian Puppy, Common Health Issues Affecting Poms, Choosing Your Pomeranian’s Veterinarian, Pomeranian Colors and Patterns . The Pomeranian colors explained, Breeding & Exhibiting Pomeranians Download the Pomeranian Book by Pomeranian Breed Authority Denise Leo.

Copyright Denise Leo 1997.  All Rights Reserved. Breeder of Best in Show winning Champion Pomeranians Not to be reproduced in any form without written consent of the author.


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