Breeding Pomeranians

Important Pomeranian Pregnancy Care Information

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Last Updated on 29/04/2024 by Denise Leo. Post first published on November 9, 2020.

Authored by Denise Leo of Dochlaggie Pomeranians, renowned for her extensive Pomeranian breeding expertise, in collaboration with our resident veterinarian, Dr. Muqeet Mushtaq. Dr. Mushtaq holds a DVM from the University of Animal and Veterinary Sciences (2019) and an MSc (Hons.) in Animal Breeding & Genetics from the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (2021).

With a successful track record in breeding Pomeranians since 1975, Denise shares her invaluable hands-on experience and insights into Pomeranian breeding.

Learn all about Pomeranian pregnancy, from signs and symptoms to care tips. Expert insights for your Pomeranian’s journey to motherhood.

Important Pomeranian Pregnancy Facts

  • Pomeranian females can have a season as early as six months and may fall pregnant at that age.
  • Pom girls under 18 months and senior Pomeranian females should not be bred with.
  • The gestation period for a Pomeranian is 63 days.
  • Your Vet can tell if your Pomeranian is pregnant between weeks 3 and 4.

Pomeranian Breeding Information

A Pomeranian in heat may fall pregnant during her first heat cycle.  She can conceive when a dog hits puberty (the first heat cycle). With toy breeds, this can happen when they’re quite young, often around six months of age.

The female dog’s cycle lasts two to three weeks, during which she is sexually receptive to male dogs. During this period, there’s a small window of a few days when eggs drop, and pregnancy may occur. Most dogs cycle two times per year, and it is normal for their cycles to be somewhat irregular. 

Even if a tie is unsuccessful, your dog may become pregnant. Lots of dog owners think that they stopped the dog mounting before anything occurred, but the female may already have been impregnated. Two different males can impregnate a female Pomeranian, and it’s called a “multi-sired” litter.

It’s possible because female dogs can have several eggs available for a few days. So, if one male mates with her, she can be fertilized.

If she’s then mated by another male, a different egg may be fertilized. If a bigger dog impregnates a Pom, it can be dangerous for her during the pregnancy and the final delivery. If you take your Pom outside so she can do her business, always check for stray dogs in the area.

Pomeranian Mating Age

Pom females should not be bred in their first season, and ideally, first breedings should be delayed until the Pom female is at least 18 months old.

In a perfect world, older Pomeranian girls should not have their first litters as 4-year-olds, nor should any caring owner consider breeding a senior Pom female.

Conscientious owners will have females desexed, and reputable Pomeranian breeders will have suitable facilities for girls in season.

Pseudo-Pregnancy (False Pregnancy)

A pseudo-pregnancy (false pregnancy) is possible and is caused if there’s an imbalance in the prolactin and progesterone hormones. Her belly will grow in size. Breast tissue may increase, and occasionally, milk may be produced.

If this happens, talk to your vet. He recommends placing cold or warm packs on the female’s mammary tissue to decrease the swelling, which should subside within three weeks. If it doesn’t, you may need to administer hormone supplements.

Newborn Pomeranian Puppies
Newborn Pomeranian Puppies

How Many Babies Do Pomeranians Have?

A Pomeranian produces an average litter of between one and four puppies. As a breeder of champion Pomeranians for many decades, I have found that the average litter is three puppies. Occasionally, I have had a girl whelp a large litter of five or six puppies.

How Long is a Pomeranian Pregnancy?

The average Pomeranian dog pregnancy period or gestation period for Pomeranians is 63 days.

Pomeranian puppies are usually born 61 days after conception. It takes 48 hours for the egg to ripen before the egg will allow penetration of sperm. If your Pomeranian female ovulates on day 11 of her cycle, conception begins on day 13.

Although we do not know exactly when ovulation occurs, this Pomeranian gestation chart is as close as possible to predicting her due date and when Pomeranian labor will commence.

Pomeranian Pregnancy Length

Numerous elements may determine the due date, including that pregnant Pomeranian mothers carrying large litters may whelp earlier and first-time mothers may whelp later than expected.

Pomeranian Gestation Calendar

Pomeranian Gestation Calendar
Pomeranian Gestation Calendar

How To Tell If Your Pomeranian Is Pregnant

You count the days from the day of mating as Day 1. The earliest you can look for any visible signs of pregnancy or ask your vet to check is on Day 22.

Here are the various tests that can be done and when to do them.

  • Day 22- 27 – A blood test can be performed to verify pregnancy.
  • Day 28 – An ultrasound can be performed to verify pregnancy.
  • Day 22 – 28 – The vet can use palpation to determine pregnancy.
  • Day 43 – 45 – An x-ray can be taken to confirm pregnancy. However, if you want to know how many puppies will be born, wait until Day 55 for a more accurate reading.

If you don’t do any of these tests, you won’t know that your Pom is pregnant until Day 28+, when her stomach is larger than normal.

Visiting The Vet is Essential

If you plan to breed two specific dogs, it’s wise to have them undergo a comprehensive barrage of tests so you know they’re healthy and eliminate any risks of genetic defects in the puppies.

The vet will measure the width of the female’s pelvis to ensure she can give birth naturally. If a Pomeranian pregnancy occurs and it’s not planned, take your dog to see the vet urgently because this can be a serious concern.

Pregnant Pomeranian Symptoms

  • Week 1: There will be no signs in the first few days. However, by the end of that week, your female may experience nausea and a reduced appetite as a result.
  • Weeks 2 & 3: Some early indicators will depend on the Pom. She may be extra tired, her stomach may have a slight swelling, her nipples may appear bigger than usual, and she may spend more time cleaning herself. During Week 2, she may still have some nausea, but that should disappear, and her appetite will rebound stronger than ever as she moves into her third week.
  • Week 4:  She’s blatantly pregnant now. Nipples that may haven’t been protruding until now will do so. Her nipples will be darker and enlarged. Her stomach will be swollen, and she is pregnant. If this isn’t her first pregnancy, her nipples might hang down as they become full of colostrum. Her appetite will be healthy, and she may tend to nest.
  • Weeks 5 and 6: She is nearing the end of her pregnancy and will be far more tired than before. She won’t be social and will generally want to rest quietly. A typical pregnancy lasts 63 days. However, it may fluctuate between 58 and 65 days and still be considered normal.

Pregnant Pomeranian Diet

Proper nutrition is essential during this time, and a high-calorie diet tailored for pregnant dogs is recommended to support their increased energy needs. The expectant mother should receive attention and care, get plenty of rest, and avoid strenuous exercise. 

Smaller, more frequent meals may alleviate discomfort and ensure she receives the nutrients necessary for a successful pregnancy. By prioritizing proper nutrition and veterinary care, you can contribute to ensuring a seamless and healthy pregnancy for your Pomeranian.

You don’t have to be exact about how much food you give your Pom, but it’s unwise to overfeed or underfeed her. She doesn’t need to have her meals increased for a few weeks, but her caloric intake should be increased as she transitions into her third week, so it’s an extra 25% of her usual intake.

Many vets recommend feeding her the puppy version of her usual food brand. It’s often a smart idea to give her meals more often instead of trying to make her eat a larger quantity at her usual feeding times. She may stop eating completely when she’s nearly ready to go into labor.

Royal Canin Size Health Nutrition Small Starter Mother & Babydog Dry Dog Food, 2.5 lb Bag
  • FORMULATED FOR MOTHERS & BABYDOGS: Royal Canin Small Starter Mother and Babydog Dry Dog Food is tailor-made for the mother’s high energy needs at the end of gestation and during lactation for the nursing puppies’ optimal growth up to 2 months old
  • HEALTHY GROWTH: Nutritional response helps to facilitate the transition from mother’s milk to solid food
  • IMMUNE SUPPORT: Clinically proven antioxidants, including vitamins E and C, help support the healthy development of puppies’ immune systems
  • MICROBIOME SUPPORT: A combination of prebiotics and highly digestible proteins helps promote a healthy balance of intestinal bacteria for digestive health and optimal stool quality
  • REHYDRATABLE KIBBLE: The kibble can be turned into a porridge-like consistency that’s palatable for both the mother and her weaning puppies

Pregnant Pomeranian Weight Gain

During pregnancy in Pomeranians, she’ll increase her weight by 20% of normal. If you’re concerned that she’s either gaining too much weight or not enough, speak to your vet. The pregnant pomeranian belly won’t all be the puppies. It will also comprise amniotic fluids, water, and sacs encasing each fetus.

Pregnant Pomeranian Supplements

Generally speaking, you shouldn’t give pregnant dogs supplements because they can harm the mother and her litter. Calcium is among the worst because it has been linked to abnormalities and eclampsia.

However, you may give the dam liquid calcium during labor because it will help with her contractions. If given 48 hours after whelping, it can also help calm a new mother.

Calcium Now – Oral Calcium for Whelping Dogs – Dog & Cat Calcium Supplement Paste – Lots of Love (30 ml) (30 ml)
  • FAST ABSORBING ORAL CALCIUM SUPPLEMENT – Calcium Now contains two forms of calcium to ensure it is easily and rapidly absorbed, making it ideal for pets that require a quick dose of calcium.
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  • USE DURING LABOR, WHELPING, QUEENING & NURSING PLUS CALCIUM DEFICIENCY – Calcium is vital for dogs during the birthing process as well as when they are nursing puppies. A lack of calcium can lead to serious health problems, so it’s important to make sure your dog is getting enough. Adding a calcium supplement to your dog’s diet during these key times can help ensure a healthy pregnancy and litter.
  • VITAMIN D3 & B6 FOR CALCIUM ABSORPTION – Calcium Now contains Vitamin D3 and B6 which are essential for calcium absorption. Without these vitamins, your pet’s body would be unable to properly absorb calcium from the food they eat. This could lead to serious health problems over time.

After that put your calcium supplements away until the next whelping and instead feed calcium-rich meals to the mother.

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Caring For Your Pregnant Pomeranian

Providing optimal care for a pregnant Pomeranian is essential to safeguard the mother’s and her puppies’ health and welfare. The best way to start is by consulting a professional veterinarian who can offer guidance throughout the pregnancy. 

Pregnant Pomeranian Exercise

Let your Pom exercise if she desires to do so and at her own pace (unless the vet has advised against it). This will ensure she’s fit and healthy during her pregnancy and more capable of giving birth when the time comes.

Never allow her to jump off a bed, a sofa, or anything else where a landing may jar the body. (All Poms shouldn’t do this anyway.) When the last two weeks arrive, and partly dependent on the size of her litter, she may be unable to move around easily, so it’s fine to stop walking her until she’s ready to do so after birth has happened and she can move around again.


If you have been allowing your Pom to sleep in your bed, set up a proper bed for her because she will have powerful nesting instincts. It can be a gated area or a playpen with a high-quality dog bed. However, don’t isolate her.

Her bed should be in one corner of the main family room. Other dogs if you have other canine pets and they make your pregnant Pom nervous, put portable baby gates around her resting space.

If you also own the sire, keep them separated from the start of the fifth week. He can return to her once the litter is weaned.

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Pomeranian Pregnancy Week by Week

Pomeranian Pregnancy Stages
Pomeranian Pregnancy Week by Week

Pomeranian Pregnancy Day 1:

  • You need to start making changes from the first day you notice signs your Pom is pregnant.
  • Mark a date on the calendar 56 days after the breeding day. You must be 100% prepared by that day.
  • From Day 56, start taking a couple of weeks off work. Your Pom can’t be left alone unless you measure her temperature regularly, and she’s not at the labor point yet.
  • Increase calcium-rich foods in her diet.

Pregnant Pomeranian Symptoms Weeks 1 – 3:

  • She may be a little moody. Her vulva may be slightly swollen.
  • Don’t feed her medications without talking to your vet.
  • Never give her any flea treatment without consulting your vet.
  • Avoid vaccinations and worm treatments.

Pomeranian Pregnancy Week 4:

  • Your dam is pregnant by then and officially verified by the vet. Her stomach will be swollen, and her nipples (including extras) will start to pop up.
  • She may have an odorless, clear discharge, but this is typical.
  • The fetuses are more prone to defects if the dam eats something toxic. So you must spend time “puppy-proofing” your entire home and any outside area she can access. Take your time and do this right because it will also be good protection once the litter starts growing and moving around to explore on their own (when they’re old enough).
  • Restrict long walks, but you should still take her for short walks daily.
  • Change her diet to calcium-rich commercial puppy food.
  • Feed snack foods that are rich in calcium.
  • Feed her more food if she’s still hungry after a normal meal.

Pomeranian Pregnancy Stages Week 5:

  • By this stage, the fetuses start looking like puppies, with the development of toes and nails.
  • Eyes develop in the open position at first.
  • They’ll close this week and will reopen approximately 10 days after they’re born. Fetuses are more resistant to developmental problems.
  • Keep on with the short daily walks and limit the longer ones.
  • Feed more food as required, but don’t allow the mother to become fat.
  • Feed her small amounts of cottage cheese and/or yoghurt between main meals.

Pomeranian Pregnancy Calendar Week 6:

  • The dam’s nipples keep growing and become darker.
  • Her puppies start to develop skin colour.
  • Now is the time for preparing her whelping box in a quiet corner of the lounge or other prominently used room where she can sleep or rest and know she’s not isolated.
  • Encourage her to go to sleep in this new space but never force her.
  • Don’t allow her to run around outside unsupervised. Dams have been known to run and hide so they can give birth on their own.

Pomeranian Dog Pregnancy Period Week 7:

  • Give her more food as required.
  • Cease any jumping or rough playtime.

Pomeranian Dog Pregnancy Period Week 8:

  • If you’re resting with your Pom, you may feel and see movement insider her stomach. You should get ready in case she gives birth early.
  • Ring the vet to book an appointment to have the dam scanned to verify the the quantity and sizes of the litter. Day 55 or 56 are the two best days to book.
  • Ensure the whelping area is fully set up.
  • Create your emergency plan if need to take your Pom to the emergency clinic.
  • She’ll be very fussy with what she eats this week, tempt her with small nutritious snacks often during the day.
  • Clip the dam’s stomach area free of hair in preparation for pups nursing.
  • Give the mother a warm bath and dry thoroughly.

Week 9 (Day 57 Dog Pregnancy to Day 65):

Her nesting behaviour may start or increase at this time.

She may lose her appetite.

Take her temperature 3 – 5 times each day and keep records of the readings in case the vet needs them.

Important Pomeranian Pregnancy Care During This Time:

This should be her daily temperature-taking routine:

  • Day 57 dog pregnancy = 3 times per day. Day 58 = 4 times a day. Day 59 = 5 times a day PLUS a sixth time in the middle of the night. Day 60 – During the day every 2 hours. During the night = every 4 hours.
  • Use Vaseline to lubricate the thermometer, slide it into the rectum 1.5 – 2 inches.

  • Commence taking your dog’s temperature at your estimated day 57 of her cycle.
  • Record your pregnant Pomeranian temperature in the AM and PM ( ideal time is when the dog is relaxed or even has been asleep – NOT following a run in the yard).

Dog Labor Temperature Chart

Taking your dog’s temperature as well as documenting this may well tell you, within 24 hours, when Pomeranian whelping will probably commence. On numerous occasions, 12-24 hours prior to the decline it may rise higher than it has been in weeks. The following chart can assist you with temperature recording.

Dog Labor Temperature Chart
Dog Labor Temperature Chart

You may possibly observe a large increase in temperature just prior to it dropping. Any temperature recorded lower than 99.2 indicates labor may commence within 24 hours. A Pomeranian dog’s regular temperature fluctuates between 101-102 degrees.

In the final trimester of the Pom pregnancy, the pregnant Pomeranian female may have a temperature of about 100. This is attributed to hormone levels.

Dogs can certainly safely whelp their litters 58 days following conception. After 58 days the pups’ lungs are completely developed and the puppies can easily breathe by themselves.

Pomeranian Pregnancy Care Plan

Preparing the Birthing Area and Whelping Box

The mother-to-be should be accustomed to her whelping box at least 2 weeks prior to her due date. The whelping box should be lined with plenty of clean sheets.

During the birthing process, as the bedding becomes soiled, replace it with clean linen. This space needs to be in a quiet room where she won’t be disturbed by people coming and going or other animals.

You, and perhaps one other helper, are all the human contact your Pom wants at this time. Once the puppies have been born, you need to use a heating pad that can be hidden under a blanket and it should be near a power socket.

Pomeranian Whelping Supplies

You’ll need these items to help you assist your dam to give birth:

Towels, sterilized scissors, dental floss, and a baby’s nasal aspirator (bulb syringe).

Arrowbash 57 Pcs Puppy Kitten Whelping Kit Include Whelping Pen for Dogs, 4 Puppy Feeding Tube, 15 Puppy Whelping Collars, 6 Record Keeping Charts, 15 Cord Clamps and Other Dogs Cats Birthing Supplies
  • Convenient Comprehensive Kit: the dog whelping supplies are meant to provide the most items for your newborn puppies or kittens; The package includes 1 dog birthing box, 4 puppy feeding tubes with 4 pacifiers, 1 bottle, 1 syringe, 6 record keeping charts, 15 puppy whelping collars, 1 pair of scissors, 15 cord clamps, 1 stethoscope, 1 bulb aspirator, 1 storage bag, 2 soft tips, 1 cup and 1 box
  • Ideal Size for Puppies and Kittens: our dog whelping pen measures about 24 inches in diameter, and 8 inches in height, foldable and portable, easy to clean, nicely sized for small breeds like 6 lb Maltese, your newborn pets will have plenty of room to grow and play; This whelping pen is mainly made of durable, quality PVC in attractive red and blue colors to create a warm, inviting environment for your pets
  • 4 Puppy Feeding Tubes to Choose from: our puppy feeding tube come in different capacities, and are designed with a variety of pacifiers, allowing you to customize feeding according to each puppy’s specific needs; You have the tools on hand to provide precise, individualized care for your pets
  • Thoughtful Extras: we’ve included 6 record keeping charts so you can track growth, feeding times, and other important information about each puppy; And equipped with collars in corresponding colors to help you easily identify each newborn puppy; The kit is a practical and thoughtful addition that makes caring for your newborn pets far simpler
  • Considerate Gift for PET Lovers: offering a practical set to puppy and kitten care, our puppy whelping kit is the functional gift for pet lovers and breeders; Practical, thoughtful, and packed with invaluable tools, it is a comprehensive package supporting the joyful journey of puppy and kitten growth

Pomeranian Giving Birth Indications

Your Pom will give birth within 24 hours when her temperature falls below a normal reading.

Find a position in which your pet feels comfortable and safe. Using a canine thermometer, ensure it’s well-lubricated and insert it 1.5 – 2 inches into her rectum, where it should remain for three minutes.

Her temperature should normally be 38.3C to 39.17C. If it drops below 37.77C, the 24-hour clock will start.

Urgent Reasons To Ring The Vet:

  • If her temperature has been low for 24 hours and she’s crying and/or vomiting but hasn’t given birth.
  • If her pregnancy has lasted over 65 days
  • If you know there’s more than one puppy, but only one has come out in two hours, • If she is discharging smelly or green fluids.
  • If her temperature has increased.

Pomeranian Labor Signs

Pomeranian Giving Birth Stage 1

Newborn Pomeranian Puppies
Newborn Pomeranian Puppies

If you know she’s close to birthing time, ensure she’s in her comfortable whelping box. Don’t allow the sire or other dogs anywhere near her enclosure. Her cervix will dilate as contractions start.

This time may be uncomfortable and/or extremely painful. She may feel restless, pace up and down, panting and shivering, and even cry. She may not feel like food, and she possibly may vomit. This initial stage lasts the longest, lasting between 4 – 12 hours.

Pomeranian Giving Birth Stage 2

Each puppy is encased in an amniotic sac that may break just before the pup is born or as he’s coming out. Each puppy can take 10 – 30 minutes of straining to push it out. Some come out sideways, or feet come out first.

If his back legs are sticking out, but he’s not actually coming out, gently grasp him with a face washer, don’t pull, but as the bitch strains, maintain a little pressure. Petroleum jelly can also be smeared on the puppy to help with delivery.

As each puppy comes out, the mother bites off its umbilical cord and licks it clean. She must be allowed to do this. The rough licking helps stimulate the puppy to start breathing and get its circulation working. The mother normally consumes the amniotic sacs and placenta.

Using dental floss, tie a piece around the cord about one inch from the puppy’s stomach. Then, tie another piece 0.25 inches away from that first tied piece and towards the placenta. Cut the cord between these two pieces with sterilized scissors. The umbilical cord generally falls off within a week or so.

Pomeranian Whelping Stage 3

After every puppy has been finally born, the mothers should settle and relax while allowing the pups to suckle.  Allow the dam to remain close to the litter while you clean up. Let the mother eat one placenta. Allowing her to eat more may result in her developing diarrhea.

Always stay with the mother while she eats the placenta, as Pomeranian females have choked and died while eating it.

Caring for Pomeranian Mother Dogs After Giving Birth

After giving birth, there may be a light discharge and minor bleeding after whelping for a maximum of 10 days. It’s considered normal as long as it reduces daily and you can’t see any health problems.

However, it’s critical that you urgently take your Pom to the vet if:

  •  She has a fever.
  • The bleeding gets worse day by day.
  • There’s too much blood.
  • The dam isn’t eating.
  • The discharge and/or blood has a rank smell.
  • Other signs of poor health are observed.

Pomeranian Care After Whelping Puppies

All soiled bedding should be removed, and fresh bedding should be put in her safe haven. Place a heating pad under the blankets. Inside the whelping box, some parts should be warm at 25-28° Celsius so puppies can move from a warm spot to a cool one if they feel too hot.

The whelping box’s flap should be shut so mothers and puppies feel secure and safe. It’s essential to monitor all of the puppies. If one can’t get sufficient milk from his mum, you’ll need to step in and feed him with a bottle. You may need to reposition puppies so they can get better access.

Weigh every puppy daily to ensure their weight increases. A set of kitchen scales is ideal for this purpose.

Put a soft cloth on the scale and put each puppy in it. If the puppies are very similar in color, you may have to use liquid paper and put a dot in a different part of their body to correctly identify each one.

Pomeranian Puppies
Pomeranian Puppies

Newborn Pomeranian Tips

If the newborn Pomeranian puppies aren’t gaining weight every day, ring your vet urgently, as there’s likely to be an unforeseen problem. Check the puppies for hypoglycemia, as this can come on rapidly.

They must be checked hourly for the first week, every second hour for weeks 2 and 3, and every three hours for the fourth week.

Once week four arrives, you’ll need to give the mother a few breaks from her litter. Some recommend that a second box be added to her helping box.

Cut a “doorway” between both boxes so the puppies can enter the “playroom” and discover the world of toys.

Problems After Pomeranian Whelping?

If this question is on your lips, there’s usually a reason. Whether it’s changes in behavior or maybe something physical, take her to your vet or a nearby animal hospital as a matter of urgency.

Apart from very minor bleeding, which is normal, there aren’t any other problems that would be considered “normal.”

Abnormal Problems After Pomeranian Whelping Include:

  • Pain.
  • Vomiting.
  • Being aggressive or biting you.
  • A pus discharge.
  • Limping whenever she walks.
  • Dehydration (signs may include – dizziness, poor appetite, and eyes that appear to have sunk in).
  • Anything else that immediately rings alarm bells. 

Final Thoughts on Pomeranian Pregnancy Stages

Breeding Pomeranian dogs can be difficult and stressful and is not something that should be entered into lightly.

Dog owners must be prepared and informed when dealing with a Pomeranian pregnancy. Monitoring the dog’s pregnancy closely, including regular veterinary check-ups and appropriate nutrition, is a good idea to ensure the mother’s and the litter’s well-being.

Understanding the typical length of pregnancy and being attentive to signs such as a firm stomach can help anticipate the arrival of the puppies. Additionally, constant contact with a veterinarian and being prepared for varying litter sizes are essential for successful outcomes, especially with fluffy, small dog breeds like Pomeranians.

I’m deeply saddened at the number of owners who write and ask if a certain problem is normal when their immediate action should be an urgent trip to their vet or pet hospital.

DON’T write to me or check out online animal communities to seek advice if your Pom has given birth and is still in a lot of pain. You won’t get a fast enough reply because hundreds of people do the same thing. You’re potentially risking the life of your beloved Pom by doing so.

Pregnant Pomeranian Stages
Pregnant Pomeranian Stages

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References and Further Reading:

[1] Denise Leo “The Pomeranian Handbook”.

Disclaimer: The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional veterinarian advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your veterinarian with any questions you may have regarding the medical condition of your dog. Never disregard professional advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on ANY website.

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The Pomeranian Handbook by Denise Leo


Denise Leo

Pomeranians are my passion, and I have shared my life with these darling little dogs for many decades. The creator and face behind this website is published author and Pomeranian breed authority Denise Leo of Dochlaggie Pomeranians.

Denise Leo
Denise Leo